FOR 16TH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF SPELEOLOGY - BRNO 2013
Some published articles of the research of drip waters in Ochozská cave in the Moravian Karst
2013 Mimořádné hydrologické extrémy v jižní části Moravského krasu v letech 2010–2012. Speleofórum 32/2013:20–21
Summary: Exceptional hydrological extremes in the southern part of the Moravian Karst in years 2010–21012. Principal phenomena of water saturation of karst structures in the Moravian Karst are described including the values of base runoff. These values have been measured for 25 years as waters infiltrating from the vadose zone to the Ochozská Cave in the year of extreme maximum discharge (2010) and in year of extreme minimum discharge (2012). A question of possible connection with global changes is put forvard.
2012 Ke stopovací zkoušce skapových vod do Ochozské jeskyně. Speleofórum 31/2012: 38-40
Summary: The rainwater tracer test in the Ochozská Cave. The tracer test of rainwater infiltrates flowing into the Ochozská Cave in the Moravian Karst began in 2008. The KBr (potassium bromide) was used as a tracer. The tracer yield state on 2011 was about 10%. Infiltration to the depth of 58–60m was in the vertical line only with a small deflection to SE, the tectonics influence on the direction of flow was negligible. The main flow ran in the direction of tectonic line NNE/SSW. The largest concetration through the drip points was reached in the winter and early spring season of the second year of tests.
2011 Fragmentární způsob spodního odtoku krasově autochtonních vod a jeho postupové rychlosti v Moravském krasu v roce 2010. Speleofórum 30/2011:119-122, ČSS , Praha
Abstract: The fragmentary way of lower outflow of karst autochthonous waters and its headway in the Moravian Karst in 2010. The way of fragmentary lower outflow and its frequency in the hydrologically extraordinary year 2010 is described here. As result of the above average rainfall and higher terrain saturation, 3–6 times higher velocity of transmission of the hydraulic pressure to drip points in the cave was found out compared to other years. At the beginning of the fragmentary outflow during a sudden increase of drip waters aktivity in the cave, a decrease in the concentration of bromide applied as a tracer in the field in 2008 was recorded.
2011 Odtokové poměry v Ochozské jeskyni v hydrologickém roku 2010. Speleofórum 30/2011:128-131 Praha
Abstract: Outflow conditions in the Ochozská Cave in the hydrological year 2010 . In 2010 there was a very rich rainfall (910mm) in the Moravian Karst. In The months from May to July by 78% more precipitation than the long-term average fell. A few floods, which left traces in the cave that have not been seen there yet, are described. Large outflow of drip waters led to horizontal drains in two corridors in the vadose zone in the length of 75m and 58m and in the height of 5–6m above the flood riverbed of the allochthonous creek to which both of the corridors lead by a vertical level.
2009 Výzkum pohybu vody vadózní zónou stopovacími zkouškami do jeskyní Ochozské a Pekárny v Moravském krasu. Speleofórum 28/2009: 131-135, ČSS, Praha
Abstract: Research of water movement through vadose zone by tracer test in the Ochozská and Pekárna caves in Moravian Karst. Tracer tests using bromide tracer carried out in both caves utilized identical precipitation-hydrological situation for the study of water flow. In spite, the results from both rocky massif are different. Comparsion of propagation velocities based on propagation of hydraulic head and tracer are summarized in Table 3. The propagation of hydraulic head in limestones above the Ochozská Cave was 8.1 times more rapid (average from three values from three sites) than in rock above the Pekárna Cave. The tracer movement was 9times faster in direction to the Ochozská Cave.
2008 Vznik a odtok krasově autochtonních vod v jižní části Moravského krasu. Speleofórum 27/2008: 122-125, ČSS, Praha
Abstract: The origin and outflow of autochthonous karst waters in the southern part of the Moravian Karst. In the Ochozská Cave (Moravian Karst), the transfer of precipitation into autochthonous underground karst waters has been monitored for a long time. In the land above the cave, the infiltration microcatchment area for a selected dripping point (E-fig.1) in the cave lying at a depth of 64m below the surface was localized. The surface consists of a shallow karren field with 10–15cm thick soil layer of rendzina and modele-aged open hornbeam (Carpinus sp.) woodland. The effectiveness of the transfer of precipitation into the soil waters was 26.2%, but only 12.2% created a subsurface flow at dripping point E (Tab.1).
The influence of local tectonic lines on the direction of water flow in vadose zone was minimal. The level of mineralization of infiltrated precipitation in the soil water and in the limestone at the dripping points at different depths is shown in Table 2. The average subsurface flow duting the period of 1987–2007 was 76.18 ( 44.8–113.3)mm (l.mˉ²), and the average total annual precipitation was 621.9 (474–708)mm (Tab.3). March (52%) was the most effective period in the year for infiltration, while the least effective period was September (0.45%). The annual infiltration percentage is not proportionally increased by a higher total for precipitation (Fig.2).
2007 Vztahy ve skapovém spektru a skapová arytmie v Ochozské jeskyni. Speleofórum 26/2007: 74-76, ČSS,Praha
Abstract: Relation into drop spectrum and the drop arrythmia in Ochozská Cave (Moravian Karst). The activity of 185 drop sites on the area of 2900m² has been evaluated. 4% of drop sites yielded up to 64% of the total dripping water. On the contrary 60% of drop sites with low efficiency yielded only 9% of the dripping water. One of the most active drop sites (E) with theoretical source are sof 272m² has been chosen for longer observation. The drop arrhytmia has been observed at several places. The transition of infiltrates between drainage paths of two near-by drop sites has been ascertained.
2007 Proudění vody a doba zdržení v půdě nad Ochozskou jeskyní (Moravský kras). Speleofórum 26/2007: 102-104, ČSS, Praha
Abstrakt: Water flow and residence time in soil above the Ochozská Cave (Moravian Karst). Water flow was studied in soil above the Ochozská Cave in the Moravian Karst. One and half year period of measurements is available for interpretation (July/2005–October/2006). Soil water was collected in gravitational lysimetre installed in 60cm below surface with an area 0,1m². The amount of water, its conductivity and δ¹8O kontent was determined and compared with values of seepage water in cave (locality E situated in depth of 60m). In lysimetre and in cave the water flow yield per unit of area is only about 10% of water amount compare to precipitation. About 90% of water is lost by evapotranspiration. Based on δ¹8O values the mean residence time of water in soil is about 3–6 months and it can be possibly shorter dutiny major recharge events. Very interesting is very slow propagation of hydraulic response in shallow soil profile. Most of water in cave is flowing during spring whereas in the lysimetre there is maximum inflow dutiny summer. This clearly demonstrates the importance of soil profile for delaying of hydraulic response through its very low thickness.
2005 Význam půdního pokryvu pro formování spodního odtoku v krasu. Speleofórum 24/2005: 42-43, ČSS, Praha
Abstract: The importance of soil cover for origin of cover outflow in karst. Data are based on observations of dripping water in the Ochozská Cave (southern part of the Moravian Karst) and on laboratory infiltration tests with soil. Results are as follows:
soil cover is saturated more by older precipitation, the outflow induced by
new precipitation starts sooner and it is more intensive.
•Soil porosity is infilled more by infiltrated water with increased precipitation.
•Infiltration from higher precipitation cause filtration collapse in soil and it forms invasion input of infiltrates into vadose zone with lower outflow of fragmentary type.
•Invasiom origin of infiltrates at the beginning of fragmentary outflow is associated with temporary decrease in water mineralisation.
•Old infiltrates, according to mineralisation, are waters 4–5 days old.
•High storage capacity of loess by physical forces was detected.
2004 17 let výzkumů skapů v Ochozské jeskyni. Sborník 3. nár. spel. Kongresu 8.-10. 2004, Sloup, ČSS, 15-22
Abstract: 17 years of the Research of Hydrology of drops in Ochoz Cave. The article describes the history of the research of the infiltration of precipitations in the Moravian Karst, especially the period 17 years (1987–2003) in Ochoz cave. Obout the results of these researches review literatura whose list is attached.
2003 Výzkum fragmantálních spodních odtoků v Moravském krasu. ČSS. Speleofórum 2003, 8-10, Praha.
Abstract: Research of fragmentary lower outflows in the Moravian Karst. Infiltrating precipitation enter the underground of limestones in the Moravian Karst also by the invasive manner – by so – called fragmentary underground outflow. During 1993–2002 eighteen fragmentary outflows were detected in the Ochozská Cave. In average, the specific outflow during fragmentary outflow regime was seven times higher than specific underground outflow during the whole year. The greater number of fragmentary outflow have been detected on March (39%). Graphs Mos. 1–3 summarise three selected fragmentary outflows with invasive water inrush ( i.e. outflows Nos. 10, 15 and 3 from Table 3).
(Autor RNDr. Jan Himmel, Czech Speleological Society , ZO 6–11)